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Good stuff. The glottal stop in kaʔs may well be secondary, as it isn't attested elsewhere: Hebrew כוס with no aleph; Akkadian /kās-/ where *kaʔs- may have yielded **/kēs-/. Neither cognate completely precludes it, though.


Interesting. There are a bunch of dialects that retain the Glottal stop in Yemen (always Yemen...), looking in Behnstedt's dialect dictionary/atlas the same dialect has raʔs pl. rūs but kās pl. kīsān (Dialect of Ṣanʕāʔ).

So apparently even within Arabic, there's little evidence for a glottal stop there.


"However, the recitation of the Prophet peace be upon him was similar to what is known as the recitation of Warsh from Nafi’. The accent of the tribe of Quraysh did not have the “hamza” letter when it came in the middle of the word. For example, they would say “moomin – مومن” not “mo’min – مؤمن” (believer)." - Mohamed Ghilan.

Although I believe Warsh does have post-consonantal hamza.


Both kās and kaʔs would have yielded the same plural, kuʔūs; perhaps the latter is to be explained as a back-formation from the plural.


Would the plural really become kuʔūs? I would probably sooner expect kuwūs then, but not sure if Arabic allows w in between two back vowels.

The only medial weak stem with a CuCūC plural I can currently think of is ṭāʔir pl. ṭuyūr, but that's a y as the medial consonant.

But yeah If you're right that the ʔ would show up there, the back formation solution would make sense.

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